Knowledge Resources and Products

SPEEDING

Easy, quick and relatively low-cost travel is important for people’s work and personal lives, and at a national level it is important for economic growth. Safety must lie at the heart of speed management (bringing road users to a safe speed using an integrated set of measures), yet governments and those involved in speed management at local level face challenges when balancing mobility and safety.
 

  Republic Acts:
RA 4136 Land Transportation and Traffic Code

RA 10916 Speed Limiters Act
Other Issuances:
MMDA MC 2011 Setting the Maximum Speed Limit

References:
2016 AAP Driver views on speed and enforcement
2016 AAP Re-visiting crash–speed relationships: A new perspective in crash modelling
2016 AAP The influence of the elements of procedural justice and speed camera enforcement on young novice driver self-reported speeding
2010 AAP Attitudes towards current and lowered speed limits in Australia
2010 AAP Classification analysis of driver’s stop-go decision and red-light running violation
2010 AAP Reducing air-pollution; A new argument for getting drivers to abide by the speed limit
2010 AAP Speed cameras in Sweden and Victoria, Australia—A case study
2010 AAP Speeding and the time-saving bias; How drivers’ estimations of time saved in higher speed affects their choice of speed
IATSS 2014 Determining optimal speed limits in traffic networks
IATSS 2014 Is 30 kmh a ‘safe’ speed? Injury severity  of pedestrians struck by a vehicle and the relation to travel speed and  age
Speed Management: Road Safety Manual for Decision-Makers and Practitioner

HELMETS

Injuries to the head and neck are the main cause of death, severe injury and disability among motorcyclists. The social costs of head injuries for survivors, their families and communities are high, in part because they frequently require specialized or long-term care. Head injuries also result in much higher medical costs than any other type of injury, meaning these injuries can exert a high toll on a country’s health care costs and its economy. Wearing a motorcycle helmet can reduce the risk of death by almost 40% and the risk of severe injury by approximately 70%. Effective enforcement of motorcycle helmet laws can increase helmet-wearing rates and thereby reduce head injuries
 

  Republic Acts:
RA 10054 Motorcycle Helmet Act of 2009
Other Issuances:
DTI MC 2012 Guidelines on RA 10054
BPS MC 06-2012 Revised Implementation of Clause 5.4 of DOTC-DTI Joint AO 1-2011
DOTC-DTI Joint AO 01-2011 Rules and Regulations Implementing Provisions of RA 10054

SEATBELTS

There are factors that can reduce seat-belt wearing rates – for example where there are more passengers than available seating positions in a car, or where there are no anchorage points, or where these have been tampered with – but seat-belt legislation, when combined with strong and sustained enforcement, is an effective mechanism for increasing seat-belt wearing rates.
 

  Republic Acts:
RA 8750 Seat Belts Use Act of 1999
References:
2016 JSR Teens and seat belt use: What makes them click
2016 TIP Seat belt use among car drivers in Iranian safe communities: An observational study
2016 TIP Seat belt use and fit among drivers aged 75 years and older in their own vehicles
2010 AAP A matched-cohort analysis of belted front and rear seat occupants in newer and older model vehicles shows that gains in front occupant safety have outpaced gains for rear seat occupants
2010 AAP Geographic and sociodemographic variation in self-reported seat belt use in the United States
2010 AAP Injury patterns in frontal crashes; The association between knee–thigh–hip (KTH) and serious intra-abdominal injury
2010 JSR The impact of a standard enforcement safety belt law on fatalities and hospital charges in Ohio
2010 TIP The Effects of Maine's Change to Primary Seat Belt Law on Seat Belt Use and Public Perception and Awareness
IJICSP 2014 Seat-belt use still low in Kuwait- self-reported driving behaviours among adult drivers
 Seat-belts and Child Restraints: Road Safety Manual for Decision-Makers and Practitioners

CHILD RESTRAINTS

Seat-belts are not designed for children and do not offer the protection they give adults, but restraining them with adult seat-belts is preferable to letting them travel unrestrained. However, the best solution is to use age-appropriate child restraints. Children in an appropriate restraint are significantly less likely to be killed or injured than unrestrained children, and are also less likely to be killed or injured than children using adult seat-belts. Legislation mandating the use of child restraints can be an effective way to increase the use of restraints and reduce injuries.
 

  Pending Bills:
HB 5815 Child Restraint Act
HB 1319 Child Restraint Act
SB 1256 AN ACT ENSURING THE SAFETY MEASURES FOR CHILDREN RIDING IN MOTOR VEHICLES
SB 3047 Alternative Transportation Act
SB 2871 Requiring Mandatory Compliance by Motorists to  Restrain All Child Passengers
References:
Project Brief on Addressing Policy Change on Road Safety Risk factors om the Philippines, with special focus on Child Restraints
Presentation on Child Safety
Child Restraints 101 for Advocates
2016 IJICSP Car child safety seats use among Iranian children in Mashad
2016 TIP Predicting vehicle belt fit for children ages 6–12
2016 TIP Prevalence and characteristics of child victims in motor vehicle collisions in Panama
2010 AAP Accessory child safety harnesses; Do the risks outweigh the benefits
2010 AAP Driver characteristics associated with child safety seat usage in Malaysia; A cross-sectional study
2010 AAP Factors influencing premature graduation from the use of child restraints in Japan
2010 AAP Methodology of estimating restraint use in children; Roadside observation or parking lot interview survey
2010 AAP Population-level estimates of child restraint practices among children aged 0–12 years in NSW, Australia
2010 JSR Legislating child restraint usage –Its effect on self-reported child restraint use rates in a central city
IATSS 2014 Safety of young children on motorized  two-wheelers around the world: A review of the global epidemiological  evidence

 

DRUG AND DRINK DRIVING

Drink–driving increases the chance of a road traffic crash, as well as the likelihood that death or serious injury will result. The risk of impairment starts at very low levels of alcohol consumption and rises exponentially with alcohol intake. Drinking and driving is also associated with other high-risk road use behaviours such as speeding or not using seat-belts. Drink–driving legislation, accompanied by visible and rapid enforcement following enactment, is an effective means of reducing alcohol-related crashes.

While a considerable amount is known about the magnitude of problems associated with drink–driving and the effectiveness of related countermeasures, much less is known about driving when impaired by other psychoactive substances. To date, there are no global estimates of deaths resulting from drug–driving, nor is the prevalence of drug–driving known, either at global or regional levels. However, growing recognition of the problem of drug–driving has led to increased focus on this area among road safety policy-makers and researchers.

 

  Republic Acts:
RA 10586 Anti-Drunk and Drugged Driving Act 2013
IRR:
IRR to RA 10586
References:
2016 AAP Drinking and driving among Italian adolescents: Trends over seven years (2007–2013)
2016 AAP Evaluation of the general deterrence capacity of recently implemented (2009–2010) low and Zero BAC requirements for drivers in Ontario
2016 AAP The dilemma of re-licensing DWI offenders: The offenders’ point of view
2016 AAP The Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST) and measures of cognitive functioning
2016 JSR DUID prevalence in Colorado's DUI citations
2016 TIP Delays in DUI blood testing: Impact on cannabis DUI assessments
2016 TIP Drink driving and risky behavior among university students in southwestern Nigeria—Implications for policy development
2010 AAP Applying Stafford and Warr’s reconceptualization of deterrence theory to drug driving; Can it predict those likely to offend
2010 AAP Are biomarkers of chronic alcohol misuse useful in the assessment of DWI recidivism status
2010 AAP Comparing the cost of alcohol-related traffic crashes in rural and urban environments
2010 AAP Predictors of driving after alcohol and drug use among adolescents in Valencia (Spain)
2010 AAP Recidivist drink drivers’ self-reported reasons for driving whilst unlicensed—A qualitative analysis
2010 AAP Reduction of the blood alcohol concentration limit in Norway—Effects on knowledge, behavior and accidents
2010 AAP Risky car following in abstinent users of MDMA
2010 AAP Safety Performance Indicator for alcohol in road accidents—International comparison, validity and data quality
2010 JSR The effects of minimum legal drinking age 21 laws on alcohol-related driving in the United States
2010 TIP The Frequency of Drugs Among Danish Drivers Before and After the Introduction of Fixed Concentration Limits
JSR 2014 Divided attention in young drivers under the influence of alcohol
 Drinking and Driving: Road Safety Manual for Decision-Makers and Practitioner
 Drug Use and Road Safety 

DISTRACTED DRIVING

While there are different types of driver distraction, the rapid growth in possession and use of mobile phones – as well as other in-vehicle technologies – is an area of great concern to policy-makers involved in improving road safety. Mobile phone use creates various types of distraction: visual, auditory, manual and cognitive. Texting involves cognitive distraction, as well as longer periods of both manual and visual distraction.
 

  Republic Acts:
References:
2016 AAP A field study on the effects of digital billboards on glance behavior during highway driving
2016 AAP Mobile phone use among motorcyclists and electric bike riders; A case study of Hanoi, Vietnam
2016 AAP Preliminary research developing a theory of cell phone distraction and social relationships
2016 AAP Why drivers use cell phones and support legislation to restrict this practice
2016 TIP State all-driver distracted driving laws and high school students' texting while driving behavior
2016 TIP The use of navigation systems in naturalistic driving
2010 AAP Combining cognitive and visual distraction; Less than the sum of its parts
2010 AAP Evaluation of different speech and touch interfaces to in-vehicle music retrieval systems
2010 TIP Long-Term  Effects  of  Handheld  Cell  Phone  Laws  on Driver  Handheld  Cell  Phone  Use
IJICSP 2015 Distracted driving_prevalence, problems, and prevention
IATSS 2014 Do in-car devices affect experienced users'  driving performance?

GENERAL INFORMATION

More than 1.2 million people die each year on the world’s roads, making road traffic injuries a leading cause of death globally. Most of these deaths are in low- and middle-income countries where rapid economic growth has been accompanied by increased motorization and road traffic injuries. Although road traffic injuries have been a leading cause of mortality for many years, most traffic crashes are both predictable and preventable.

  Republic Acts:
RA 10666 Children's Safety on Motorcycles Act of 2015

Pending Bills:
HB 0004 National Transportation Safety Board Act
HR 2531 Investigation on Frequent SUA Incidents involving  Mitsubishi Montero SUVs
SB 0050 Road Safety Act
Other Issuances:
LTO Memorandum 2016 Enforcement Operations

DOTC Joint AO 2014-01 Revised Schedule of Fines and Penalties for Land Transportation Laws
DOTC DO 2013-12 Adopting the Open Data Initiative as a DOTC Priority
DOTC DO 2012-01 Mandating Strict Implementation of Safety Measures
DOTC MC VPT-2012-1609 Revised Rules on Implementation of EWD Requirement
DILG MC 2011-06 Directing PNP-HPG to Establish Checkpoints on Roads
LTO DO 2008-39 Revised Schedule of LTO Fines and Penalties for Traffic and Administrative Violations
References:
BIGRS - LDP Progress Report February 2017
BIGRS - LDP Progress Report December 2016 to January 2017
UN Global Plan for the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011 - 2020
Pillar 1: Improve Road Safety Management Philippine Road Safety Action Plan 2010-2020
Pillar 2: Safer Road Philippine Road Safety Action Plan 2010-2020
Pillar 3: Safer Vehicle Philippine Road Safety Action Plan 2010-2020
Pillar 4: Safer Road Users Philippine Road Safety Action Plan 2010-2020
Pillar 5: Improve Trauma Care and Rehabilitation Users Philippine Road Safety Action Plan 2010-2020
Data for Road Incident Visualization Evaluation and Reporting
Road Safety Journalism Fellowship
Road traffic injuries: A quick overview
BIGRS Philippines Stakeholders' Meeting October 2016
BIGRS Philippines Partners' Meeting October 2016
2016 AAP A comprehensive conceptual framework for road safety strategies
2016 AAP Association between increase in fixed penalties and road safety outcomes: A meta-analysis
2016 AAP Benchmarking road safety performance: Identifying a meaningful reference (best-in-class)
2016 AAP Economic development, mobility and traffic accidents in Algeria
2016 AAP Estimating the Value of Life, Injury, and Travel Time Saved Using a Stated Preference Framework
2016 AAP Hotspots and social background of urban traffic crashes: A case study in Cluj-Napoca (Romania)
2016 IATSS Achieving safe road traffic — the experience in Japan
2016 JSR Progress towards zero, an international comparison: Improvements in traffic fatality from 1990 to 2010 for different age groups in the USA and 15 of its peers
2016 JSR Reporting road victims: Assessing and correcting data issues through distinct injury scales
2016 TIP Mortality from road traffic accidents in a rapidly urbanizing Chinese city: A 20-year analysis in Shenzhen, 1994–2013
2010 AAP An integrated approach to evaluate policies for controlling traffic law violations
2010 AAP Cause, effect and regression in road safety; A case study
2010 AAP Cultural values and governance quality as correlates of road traffic fatalities; A nation level analysis
2010 AAP Excess accident risk among residents of deprived areas
2010 AAP Sources of uncertainty in estimated benefits of road safety programmes
2010 AAP The direct and indirect effects of corruption on motor vehicle crash deaths
2010 AAP The effect of daily-activity patterns on crash involvement
2010 AAP The problems in determining international road mortality
2010 AAP Why some road safety problems are more difficult to solve than others
2010 AAP Willingness to pay for private and public road safety in stated preference studies; Why the difference
2010 IJICSP An integrated surveillance system of road traffic injuries in the Lazio region of Italy; results of a 5-year study (2001–2005)
2010 IJICSP Road traffic safety in African countries – status, trend, contributing factors, countermeasures and challenges
IATSS 2015 Development of an onboard system to measure the on-road driving pattern for developing motorcycle driving cycle in Khon  Kaen city, Thailand
IATSS 2015 Analyzing accidents and developing elderly driver-targeted measures based on accident and violation records
IATSS 2015 Coordination of horizontal and sag vertical curves on two-lane rural roads:_Driving simulator study
IATSS 2015 Evidence-based and data-driven road safety  management
IATSS 2015 The challenges of transportation-traffic  statistics in Japan and directions for the future
IIATSS 2015 Transportation statistics that can contribute  to policies and social infrastructure development aimed at ensuring the   healthy growth of cities & providing support for smooth economic activity
IATSS 2014 Aviation Impacts on Property Values and  Management: The Case of Suvarnabhumi International Airport
 2014 Estemating the Socio Economic Burden of Road Traffic Injuries in the Philippines
 2014 GRSP Annual Report
 Advancing the Right to Health, The Vital Role of Law
 Ambitious Road Safety Targets and the Safe System Approach
 Legislation and Road User Behavior
 World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention
 Breakthroughs and Breakdown of Transport System in the Philippines
 Challenges of Urabn Transport Development in Metro Manila: A look back at the last 40 years
 Road Crashes in Metro Manila: An Overview of Road Safety
 Cities Safer by Design
 The Handbook of Road Safety Measures
 Results of Assessment of the Utilization and Impacts of Motor Vehicle User's Charge in the Philippines
 List of Road Safety Journals