Electric Vehicle and Traffic Simulation Research

The number of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and pure electric vehicles (Pure EVs) are increasing in the international market (Platt, 2010) and localized versions of these vehicles are also increasing such as the e-Jeepneys and e-tricycles in the Philippines (Irvine, 2010). With this steady increase, the feasibility of these vehicles as a means of future transport system becomes significant. Factors to take notice for the possibility of having electric vehicles as public transport vehicles include the traffic policy formulation and vehicle energy storage system. 

Figure 1. Electric Tricycles for the South East Asian Market from the 3rd Philippine Electric Vehicle Summit

 

Aside from looking within the electric vehicles, looking at the interaction with other electric vehicles will affect the feasibility of adopting electric vehicles as a means of public transport. Their feasibility lies in the traffic policies. This is more important in already congested traffic like in most urban setting.

Interest in the electric vehicle research for public transportation led to the formation of the Ateneo de Manila University e-vehicle group. Previous research spearheaded this like the Ateneo hybrid electric tricycle project (Calasanz, Tangonan, Uy, & Villarin, 2005). The group is also working in interdisciplinary fields. For example, research in supercapacitor electrode from the Chemistry department is linked to the Electronics Engineering department. The field of management is also explored as new business models could be built around the electric vehicles such as a battery swapping business. 

Currently, active players are from the Electronics, Computer and Communications Engineering Department, Physics Department, Chemistry Department, and Manila Observatory under the Ateneo Innovation Center. Undergraduate and graduate student members include the electric vehicle research as part of their final year project. The research members are also in talks with different universities and industry partners for possible expansion of research work.

 
 
Framework
Figure 1. Framework for Linking Public Policy and Drive Designs to Economic and Vehicle Performance: the generated driving cycle from the NetLogo traffic simulation is used as an input to the MATLAB quasi-static simulation (QSS) to create vehicle efficiency graphs such as fuel consumption.
 
Can we use multi-agent simulation to calculate  the drive cycle for different traffic assumptions for electric vehicles in public transport  - special lanes, fixed stops, fixed schedules, mixed traffic?
 
Figure 2. Sample NetLogo Multi-Agent Traffic Modeling.

 Can we understand the power efficiency  of advanced drive designs  like using super-capacitors in different drive cycles?

Figure 3. MATLAB QSS Model for a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Supercapacitors. The supercapacitor and lead-acid battery modules are connected using an electric power balance module.  
 
Can we understand battery life tradeoffs and improvements for advanced drive designs, especially the use of lead acid batteries with super capacitors?
Figure 4. Battery Performance Improvements when supercapacitors are used. Voltage fluctuations are reduced mainly because the short transients were off-loaded to the supercapacitors. 
 
 
The research started in building scalable and efficient electric vehicles under heavy traffic conditions such as improving the thermal efficiency and using supercapacitorsThe research evolved in using different tools in evaluating electric vehicle performance, and in using multi-agent modeling for simulating the traffic when electric vehicles are introduced.  Output includes total energy expended by the system and total passenger throughput. The future direction of the research is to provide quantitative economic performance output based on provided traffic policies and drive designs. The generated data could be used as a basis for the adoption of electric vehicles with specific drive designs, and implementation of future traffic policies in the public transport sector especially in tropical megacities. The research also aims to use feedback loops as basis for the simulations such as images and videos of different traffic flows observing vehicle speed.   

Research Sublinks:

 


Selected Publications: 

A selection of publications from this research area is listed below. For other publications, please refer to the Publications link. 

Performance evaluation of series hybrid and pure electric vehicles using lead-acid batteries and supercapacitors

Infante, W.F.; Khan, A.F. ; Libatique, N.J.C. ; Tangonan, G.L. ; Uy, S.N.Y.

TENCON 2012 - 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference 19-22 Nov. 2012 ISSN : 2159-3442 Print ISBN: 978-1-4673-4823-2

The adoption of pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles for public transportation poses a number of issues. In this paper, we simulate the implications of series hybrid- and pure electric- vehicles employing Pb acid battery-supercapacitor combinations. Our simulations suggest that peak fuel consumption is lessened to 31.3 percent in series hybrid electric vehicles when lead-acid batteries are coupled with supercapacitors compared to a system using batteries alone. Voltage fluctuations are reduced from 52 V difference to 1 V difference as the short transients are off-loaded to the supercapacitors. By altering the values for battery capacity, vehicle weight, and capacitance, the simulation suggests optimal operation ranges for targeted designs. In parts of the simulation, we took Metro Manila Jeepney drive cycle data characterized by frequent stop-and-start conditions and compared these to regularized routes travelling the same distance: the regularized drive cycles resulted in less battery parameter fluctuation for both models and less fuel consumption for the SHEV model with a value of 30.2 percent. The regularized route drive cycle needed lower-valued supercapacitors from 1700 F to 1000 F to produce the same performance. In addition, new driving cycles were also generated in NetLogo based on traffic policy assumptions.

Digital Object Identifier : 10.1109/TENCON.2012.6412224 (Download Full Text PDF Here)

Hybrid-electric vehicle designed for slow, start/stop, low-gear driving in heavy traffic conditions in Manila
Calasanz, T.; Tangonan, G.; Uy, S.; Villarin, J. 
Vehicle Power and Propulsion, 2005 IEEE Conference 7-9 Sept. 2005 Print ISBN: 0-7803-9280-9
 
This HEV is designed to improve the overall thermal efficiencies of passenger utility vehicles that operate under heavy traffic conditions in the streets of Manila. The system is scalable from a small "passenger tricycle" to a passenger bus and may be considered as a retrofit system to existing vehicles.

Digital Object Identifier : 10.1109/VPPC.2005.1554606 (Download Full Text PDF Here)

 

 

 

 

Key References: 

M. Stifter, S. Übermasser, and S. Henein (2013). Agent-Based Impact Analysis of Electric Vehicles on a Rural Medium Voltage Distribution Network Using Traffic Survey Data. Highlights on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, Springer Publishing Company: 2013. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-38061-7_38. 

L. Rosario (2007). Power and Energy Management of Multiple Energy Storage Systems in Electric Vehicles. (Doctoral dissertation). Department of Aerospace Power and Sensors, Cranfield University, Wiltshire, United Kingdom.

 


Recent Activity 

For other activities, please refer to the Activities link. 

2014.02.27 E-Vehicle Group in the 3rd Philippine Electric Vehicle Summit 

 

The Electric Vehicle Research were delegates from the academe. The Electric Vehicle Association of the Philippines (eVAP) hosted the event at the Meralco Theater, Pasig City. The summit was supported by various sectors from the academe, industry, and government units. Delegates for the Ateneo Innovation Center included Dr. Tangonan, Dr. Libatique, and Infante. 

 

 

 


Selected Presentations: 

ERDT 6th Conference Poster

TENCON2012 Slides

 

SOSE Science Awards Paper