Published Research

Gotangco, C.K., Jardeleza, J.M., Lopez, C., Labaria, E.C., Wickert, J. and Shadiya, F. (2020), "Factors influencing disaster risk and resilience education in Asian HEIs", International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.


Purpose: Educational initiatives can provide the crucial foundation for capacity-building of stakeholders in the field of disaster risk management and disaster resilience. The purpose of this paper is to scope current initiatives to deliver disaster risk and resilience education (DRRE) in higher education institutions (HEIs) in Asia and explore factors that serve as barriers or as opportunities for promoting DRRE.

Design/methodology/approach: This study implemented mixed methods – scoping of existing programs of Asian universities, an online survey and a small-group workshop of Asian HEI representatives – and explored both the development and implementation phases of degree programs and coursework and other educational initiatives. Primarily involved were country partners of the Erasmus + CABARET network (CApacity-Building in Asia for Resilience EducaTion).

Findings: Results reflect that most of the existing formal degree programs are at the graduate level though a wide range of courses and research opportunities exist for both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Findings underscore the importance of institutional support from university leaders as a key factor for overcoming barriers, given the resources and logistics needed by DRRE as an interdisciplinary and multi-sectoral endeavor. Universities who participated in the small-group workshop gave mixed feedback on the level of adequacy of the potential drivers for DRRE, which indicates the need to level off capacities and expertise in the region.

Originality/value: This study provides a baseline assessment of DRRE currently lacking for the region, with recommendations for how to further build capacities of Asian HEIs.

Feofilovs, M., Romagnoli, F., Gotangco, C.K., Josol, J.C., Jardeleza, J.M.P., Litam, J.E., Campos, J.I. and Abenojar, K. (2020), "Assessing resilience against floods with a system dynamics approach: a comparative study of two models", International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print. (This is also accessible through


Purpose: This paper aims to present the concepts of two different ways of generating a dynamic structure of the urban system to further allow in understanding specific urban behavior facing against flood and further evaluate the potential effect of specific resilience strategies aiming to decrease the exposure and vulnerability of the system.

Design/methodology/approach: Two system dynamics model structures are presented in the form of Causal Loop Diagrams.

Findings: The main differences among the two approaches are the time horizon and the approach that regulates the assessment of the resilience through a dynamic composite indicator: the first model refers to baseline at initial simulation time; the second model is focused on the ratio service supply to demand.

Research limitations/implications: Within the approach, the purpose is to properly and efficiently evaluate the effect of different Flood Risk Management strategies, i.e. prevention, defence, mitigation, preparation and recovery for consistent and resilient flood governance plans with different types of resilience scenarios.

Originality/value: The need for such a tool is underlined by a lack of the assessment of urban resilience to flood as a whole, considering the physical and social dimensions and the complex interaction among their main components. There are several assessment tools based on an indicator approach that have been proposed to meet this need. Nevertheless, indicator-based approach has the limitation to exclude the complexity of the system and its systemic interaction in terms of feedbacks’ effects among the identified components or variables selected for the system description. This peculiarity can be provided by System Dynamics modeling.

Sahakian, M., Anantharaman, M., Di Giulio, A., Saloma, C. Zhang, D., Khanna, R., Narasimalu, S., Favis, A. M., Alfiler, C. A., Narayanan, S., Gao, X., Li, C. (2020). Green public spaces in the cities of South and Southeast Asia: Protecting needs towards sustainable well-being, The Journal of Public Space, 5(2), 89-110, DOI 10.32891/jps.v5i2.1286


The significance of green public spaces is well documented in relation to social inclusiveness, human health, and biodiversity, yet how green public spaces achieve what Gough (2017) has termed ‘sustainable wellbeing’ is less understood. This contribution presents preliminary results from a study of green public spaces in four mega-cities of South and Southeast Asia: Chennai (the Republic of India), Metro Manila (the Republic of the Philippines), Singapore (the Republic of Singapore), and Shanghai (the People’s Republic of China), cities that have climates ranging from tropical, to subtropical and temperate. The conceptual framework brings together social practice theories with human development theories, methodological implications for the study of park usage, and Protected Needs. This study sets out to understand how parks satisfy human needs by uncovering practices in relation to activities and material arrangements. Central to the research design and sampling strategy is a desire to understand park-related practices in all of their diversity, and accounting for how different activities are carried out by diverse groups of people. The paper presents exemplary results showing that parks provide a space in which a multitude of needs are satisfied, and that parks cannot be substituted by other settings such as commercialized spaces. The paper will conclude by discussing tensions between types of park usage, and in relation to commercial encroachments on public space.

Sahakian, M., Shenoy, M., Soma, T., Watanabe, A., Yagasa, R., & Permakumara, D. et al. (2020). Apprehending Food Waste in Asia: Policies, Practices and Promising Trends. In C. Reynolds, T. Soma, C. Spring & J. Lazell, Routledge Handbook of Food Waste (1st ed.). Routledge.


Food waste is an emerging issue both in the global and local contexts. This chapter presents perspectives from Asia, including the Philippines, and discusses the social, cultural, political, environmental, and technological dimensions of the food waste problem through an interdisciplinary lens. Recommendations to reduce, if not prevent, food waste, and finding a more nuanced understanding of the role of governance and policy making as well as the influence of consumer behavior and consumer trends in food consumption are presented.

Cuyegkeng, M., & Favis, A. (2019). Sustainability Practices in Higher Education: Stakeholder Engagement in Promoting Campus Sustainability. Journal Of Management For Global Sustainability, 7(2), 101–117.


Universities have a role in changing mindsets toward sustainable development through education, research, and extension work. Despite the ongoing trend in favor of sustainability initiatives, however, they themselves struggle to transform organizational practices in their own contexts, especially when trying to get the administration’s buy-in and establish stakeholder engagement. Ateneo de Manila University in particular used its response to the decrees of General Congregation 35 (Society of Jesus, 2008) of the Society of Jesus to serve as the foundation of its campus sustainability programs, especially with respect to its translation into policies that affect the university’s ecological footprint and stakeholder engagement. These programs have led to the articulation of the university’s sustainability policies, administrative structures that support sustainability, and publication of sustainability reports and, more importantly, promoted changes in institutional and personal lifestyles.

Ortega, V., A., Rodrigo, M. M. T., Favis, A. M., Mora, K. A., & Rubio, V. T. (2019). Let’s Build a City: A Sustainable City Building Clicker Game. In 2019 IEEE International Conference on Teaching, Assessment, and Learning for Engineering (TALE). IEEE. (Scopus-indexed)


This paper describes the design, development, and testing of Let’s Build a City, a sustainable city-building clicker game for college students required to take courses in natural sciences as part of their core curriculum. It is meant as a teaching module on how excessively aggressive building, expansion, and consumption of resources leads to the overall downfall of the city and surrounding area. The game leads the player into depleting the natural environment for the sake of points, showcasing how easy it is to tunnel-vision into chasing progress and the irreparable damage doing so could cause. During the post-game processing with the testers, feedback was highly positive in terms of gameplay and delivering the intended message.

You may check out the game here

Tanganco, L. J. U., Alberto, M. A. J., & Gotangco, C. K. Z. (2019). Forecast of Potential Areas of Urban Expansion in the Laguna de Bay Basin and Its Implications to Water Supply Security. Philippine Journal of Science, 148(4), 715-724.


The Laguna de Bay Basin is a highly important economic and environmental resource with a variety of land and water uses. This study investigates the status and trends of the land cover change of the Laguna de Bay Basin, focusing on urban expansion. Using the Land Transformation Model (LTM), drivers of conversion of agricultural and natural land cover to built-up land were determined based on the land cover change between 2003 and 2015. Drivers identified include distance to rivers, distance to roads, distance to Laguna Lake, distance to existing built-up, slope, population density, soil type, temperature, and rainfall. A forecast of urban expansion assuming “business-as-usual” conditions to year 2050 shows the expansion of built-up areas southward of the National Capital Region towards the areas of Cavite, Batangas, and Laguna, and eastward to Rizal. This poses a risk to the water bodies near these areas. Potential implications on water quality and quantity, as components of overall water supply security, are discussed. A framework for future research integrating land use and land cover change (LULCC) and water supply security is proposed. The study recommends the continued implementation of integrated watershed management and the development of more transboundary management policies.

Favis, A., & Estanislao, R. (2017). Towards Sustainable Consumption of Rice in a Private School in Metro Manila. In M. Sahakian, C. Saloma & S. Erkman, Food Consumption in the City Practices and Patterns in Urban Asia and the Pacific (1st ed.). Routledge.


This chapter describes rice plate waste generation and the social practices related to it in a private school in Metro Manila. Rice plate waste was measured at the primary school and the university level. In addition to considering food flows in their biophysical dimension, this chapter comments on the need to contextualize food flows in specific social and institutional settings, where a focus on actual social practices could be valuable, particularly in inciting changes towards reduced rice waste.

Gotangco, C.K., Favis, A.M., Guzman, M.A.L., Tan, M.L., Quintana, C. and Josol, J.C. (2017), "A supply chain framework for characterizing indirect vulnerability", International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, Vol. 9 No. 2, pp. 184-206.


Purpose: Climate vulnerability assessments are often operationalized by the analysis of indicators defined by the spatial boundaries of the community under study. These, however, sometimes fail to capture interdependency among communities for basic resources. This paper aims to propose a framework for characterizing vulnerability caused by interdependency by adapting a supply chain lens. 

Design/methodology/approach: The paper proposes a definition for “indirect vulnerability” that recognizes the transboundary and teleconnected nature of vulnerability arising from resource networks among cities and communities. A conceptual framework using a supply chain approach is presented for climate hazards in particular. This approach is then demonstrated through a rapid appraisal of the rice, energy and water supply chains and the waste management chains of Metro Manila. 

Findings: The application of the supply chain lens to assessing the indirect vulnerability of Metro Manila brings to fore issues extending beyond the decision-making boundaries of local government units. Addressing these will require vertical government coordination and horizontal inter-sectoral collaboration. Thus, this supply chain-based indirect vulnerability assessment can be complementary to traditional vulnerability assessments in providing a larger systems perspective. 

Originality/value: Innovative tools are needed to make community vulnerability assessments both holistic and tractable. Existing methods in the private sector can be adapted rather than reinventing the wheel. This supply chain framework can be a useful decision support and planning tool across governance levels to comprehensively address vulnerability.

Maria Mercedes T. RODRIGO, Johanna Marion R. TORRES, Janina Carla M. CASTRO, Abigail Marie T. FAVIS, Ingrid Yvonne HERRAS, Francesco U. AMANTE, Hakeem JIMENEZ, Juan Carlo F. MALLARI, Kevin Arnel MORA, Walfrido David A. DIY, Jaclyn Ting Ting LIM & Ma. Assunta C. CUYEGKENG. For People and Planet: Teachers' Evaluation of an Educational Mobile Game and Resource Pack. 29th International Conference on Computers in Education Conference, ICCE 2021 - Proceedings, 2021, 2, pp. 658–667.

Ma. Mercedes T. RODRIGO, Walfrido David A. DIY, Abigail Marie T. FAVIS, Francesco U. AMANTE, Janina Carla M. CASTRO, Ingrid Yvonne HERRAS, Juan Carlo F. MALLARI, Kevin Arnel MORA, Johanna Marion R. TORRES & Ma. Assunta C. CUYEGKENG. A RECIPE for Teaching the Sustainable Development Goals. 29th International Conference on Computers in Education Conference, ICCE 2021 - Proceedings, 2021, 1, pp. 451-456.

Ongoing Research

Sustainability in Social Enterprises (JGSOM-ACSEnt) (2016 – present)

Business Continuity for Micro-enterprises (JGSOM and OSCI) (2016 – present)



Single-Use Plastics: Possibilities for Stakeholder Engagement, or SUPPOSE, is under the Arete Sandbox Residency Program, and explores ecosystems that describe people's practices, consumption patterns and behavioral change when it comes to single-use plastics in the Katipunan-Loyola Heights area. We look into alternative technologies, systems, and practices that can be introduced to reduce single-use plastics from food deliveries on campus.

We hope to find answers to the following questions:

  • What would be an appropriate communications campaign to educate and inform stakeholders on practices/ impact of single-use plastics?
  • How can these EIC strategies be shared with academe, business, and government in the locality/region?
  • How can we challenge students to design entrepreneurial solutions for this problem?

Hearing Aid

Hearing Aid is another research project part of the Arete Sandbox Residency Program that merges the fields of environmental science, biology, communication, and human geography. We have been building a collection of audio recordings from various spaces of the Loyola campus and are featuring sounds of living things (biophony), sounds of wind, water, thunder (geophony), and man made noise (anthrophony) to challenge us to listen to our environment and deepen our connection with nature. You can listen to some clips from our library here in the Ateneo Wild Soundcloud.


Selga Hall, 2F Manila Observatory,
Fr. Masterson Drive,
Ateneo de Manila University,
Katipunan Ave., Quezon City
Philippines 1108



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