The Juris Doctor Program Elective Courses

Advanced Topics in Administrative Law and Regulatory Policy (2 units)
This course acquaints the students with a selection of contemporary developments in the field of Administrative Law, with a view towards enriching their study of this rapidly evolving branch of public law.  The course will discuss, among other topics, the agency’s possible use of Alternative Modes of Dispute Resolution, as well as Discovery Sanctions, and the rising phenomenon of Independent Agencies. In terms of agency rulemaking, the course shall acquaint the students with the various agency issuances, their respective nuances, and the different rulemaking processes that agencies have to undertake as a matter of law and/or sound regulatory policy.
 
Appellate Practice and Brief Making (2 units)
This course provides an overview of appeals before the Court of Appeals and the Supreme Court. Emphasis is placed on appellate procedure and practical training, including oral and written presentation, methodology, brief making, and other aspects of appellate practice.
 
ASEAN Economic Relations, Law, and Policy (2 units)
This course examines the trade policies of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the structure of the international trading system. It considers the ASEAN Charter and related treaties in the ASEAN region, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the World Trade Organization, and the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation.
 
Bank Conservatorship, Receivership, and Liquidation (2 units)
This course features an in-depth discussion of the laws, rules of procedure, and jurisprudence on bank conservatorship, receivership, and liquidation. It provides students a venue to study the legal and regulatory framework that governs a bank when it suffers financial problems and/or becomes insolvent and has to be liquidated. 
 
Banking Law (2 units)
This course discusses laws, rules, and regulations governing banks and non-bank financial intermediaries, including the New Central Bank Act and the circulars and rules and regulations of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas.
 
Children’s Rights and the Law (2 units)
This course introduces the students to the legal framework of protection for children and the psychosocial dimensions of handling child rights cases. The Convention on the Rights of the Child is used as the main framework of the course. The course is divided further into specific clusters of rights of children in relation to Philippine laws, issuances, rules of court, and jurisprudence.
 
Clinical Legal Education 101: Law Student Practice (2 units)
This is a practical application of the law through supervised student practice under Rule 138-A of the Rules of Court. Under the supervision of volunteer lawyers, law students assist in the handling of cases of indigent clients. Students are provided with hands-on training through active participation in client interviews, consultations, legal research, preparation of pleadings and, for those qualified, actual court appearances. CLED 101-A is the first semester offering of this course, which focuses on trial techniques. CLED 101-B is the offering for the second semester, which focuses on student practice. Those under the Dispute Resolution Track are required to take both courses during their fourth year. For those belonging to other tracks, they may take CLED 101-A as a stand-alone subject. If they wish to take CLED 101-B, they should first take CLED 101-A in the immediately preceding semester.
 
Clinical Legal Education 102: The Criminal Justice System and the Rights of the Accused (2 units)
This course teaches students how to conduct jail decongestion. Its classroom component analyzes the problem areas in the criminal justice system as they relate to the rights of the accused using international human rights law and the rights-based approach as its framework. Its fieldwork component requires students to conduct jail decongestion activities for two hours a week (or a total of 32 hours) during the regular semester. The activities include jail visits, case follow-ups, and paralegal trainings
 
Comparative Environmental Law (2 units)
This is a comparative study of the different environmental regulations and legal traditions around the world. Upon completing the course, students will be able to identify the environmental regulators in different jurisdictions and outline basic environmental policy and regulatory recommendations.
 
Conflict Resolution in Family Disputes (2 units)
This course studies the spectrum of dispute resolution processes in resolving family conflict and introduces students to an interest-based and rights-based critique of its theories and applications.   It focuses primarily on Philippine dispute resolution systems involving marital conflict, child custody, and violence against women and children. Students are also acquainted with the interfacing of other disciplines in resolving family conflicts.
 
Constitutional Litigation and the Power of Judicial Review (2 units)
This course, which seeks to apply students’ knowledge of constitutional law, is divided into two parts. The first part applies the Constitution from the perspective of the constitutional litigator focusing on central ways in which constitutional claims are brought before courts. Cases brought before the Supreme Court questioning the constitutionality of laws or acts of public officials are reviewed. The second part examines the power of judicial review. It seeks to understand how Courts determine questions of constitutionality brought before their halls.
 
Consumer Protection Laws (2 units)
This course discusses laws and jurisprudence governing the general overview of the pertinent provisions of the New Civil Code on Human Relations as applicable to consumer protection. It gives a background on the law on torts as pertinent to civil liability in consumer protection and product liability cases. Special laws, such as Rent Control Law, Price Control Law, Truth in Lending Act, Generic Drugs Act, Food Drugs and Cosmetics Act, are discussed. The Code of Ethics, Rules and Regulations for Advertising and Sales Promotions, and the Rules and Regulations Governing the Conduct and Promotion of Sales of Goods and Services are also covered by the course.
 
Copyright and Related Rights (2 units)
This course emphasizes the various legislations on copyright and related rights and provides students with an in-depth and up-to-date knowledge of the general principles of copyright and similar laws. The course also discusses the international treaties on copyright and related rights, the role of World Intellectual Property Organization and the World Trade Organization in the protection of copyright and related rights, as well as recent developments and trends in this area.
 
Corporate Finance (2 units)
This course focuses on the legal aspects of corporate finance transactions, including capital formation, debt security and preferred stock contracts, convertibles, corporate distributions, and acquisitions. Corporation Law is a pre-requisite to this course.
 
Corporate Governance (2 units)
This course discusses the body of policies, doctrines, statutory provisions, and rules and regulations pertaining to corporate governance as they apply to public companies and banking institutions. The course reviews the philosophical bases of corporate governance, principles, and the hierarchical interests of the various stakeholders. The course also relates corporate governance principles with corporate social responsibilities.
 
Corporate Practice (2 units)
This course gives students a practical approach to the study of corporations and to apply their knowledge of corporation law to actual practice and procedure in corporate organizations and reorganizations. It includes a study of the steps and procedure for incorporation, amendment of Articles of Incorporation and By-laws, increase or decrease of capital stock, mergers, consolidations, buy-outs, dissolution, and other methods of corporate reorganizations. It also covers a study of minutes preparation.
 
Emerging Issues in Human Rights (2 units)
This course, conducted in several modules, tackles current human rights issues and debates at the domestic and regional levels. Students analyze issues using a multi-disciplinary approach and are expected to share their own insights and experiences to enrich the discussions. Emerging issues are examined in relation to existing promotion and protection mechanisms in human rights. This course also explores the extent by which a country’s state of democratization has allowed greater accommodation of the rights claimed by its people as human rights.
                                                           
Emerging Issues in Intellectual Property Law (2 units)
This course focuses on the emerging developments and how Intellectual Property affects these issues. The course presents ongoing debates and promotes informed discussions on these concerns. It explains researches, studies, and current initiatives on these areas both at the national and international level. Intellectual property issues related to health, food security, science and technology, environment, and indigenous peoples and traditional cultures are tackled in this course.
 
Energy Law and Practice (2 units)
This course contains an introduction to the study of the Philippine Electric Power Industry and examines Republic Act No. 9136 or the Electric Power Industry Reform Act of 2001 and related laws, rules, and regulations. It seeks to address the fundamentals of law practice in the electric power industry, particularly negotiation of power supply contracts, power supply contract drafting, review of power supply contracts, and utilities regulation.
 
Entertainment Law (2 units)
This course introduces students to the different aspects of the entertainment industry, including radio, film, television, advertising, music, sports, video games, and emerging new media such as streaming and video-on-demand. It examines laws governing these industries, and the propriety of such regulations. Intellectual property considerations are also discussed. It likewise covers special topics in the sports industry, licensing agreements, and contractual agreements, to name a few.
 
Environmental Regulation (2 units)
This course includes a study of concepts and principles affecting environmental laws, including constitutional considerations and the effect of legislations to the environment. Specifically, this course focuses on population and human resources, food security, ecosystems resource for development, energy, industry, land use, and environmental litigation.
 
Environmental Rights and Legal Remedies in the Philippines (2 units)
This course tackles current environmental concerns and issues in the country and the laws that govern them. These include problems in forestlands, waters, loss of biodiversity, aerial territory, and mining. A rights-based approach is employed in the course wherein the basic principles on the right to the environment are discussed and the roles and responsibilities of the State, communities, and other stakeholders are explored. This course also discusses the Rules of Procedure for Environmental Cases and jurisprudence promulgated following such rules.
 
European Business Law (2 units)
In the context of the increasingly international nature of business and of the expanding scope of trade between Asia and Europe, this course examines the business-related legal environment in the European Union. It also discusses a general overview of at least four significant areas of European business law and policy.
 
Evolving Norms of Business Responsibilities for Human Rights (2 units)
This course studies the intersection of business operations and corporate activities with human rights issues, examines whether human rights responsibilities of business and corporate entities exist, and highlights the importance of affording remedies to victims of human rights violations occasioned by business and corporate activities. The course traces the evolution of the Business and Human Rights discourse and its different applications and implementation around the world.  Current issues and developments in the field, especially in the ASEAN region, are also discussed.
 
Family Business Governance and Counseling (2 units)
This is a workshop for those interested in advising or engaging in the governance of family businesses. The first half of the course reviews the field as an area of legal practice from the separate perspectives of key stakeholder groups involved in a family business. The second half focuses on studying, through actual case studies, the most common challenges of family business governance encountered by legal practitioners.
 
Financial Rehabilitation and Insolvency Laws (2 units)
This is a study of the laws, rules, jurisprudence, procedure, and practice governing the proceedings for suspension of payments, rehabilitation and insolvency, and dissolution of corporate and other juridical entities, under the provisions of the Financial Rehabilitation and Insolvency Act, Presidential Decree No. 902-A, and Subsection 5.2 of the Securities Regulation Code. The course includes a comparative study of Philippine laws with the provisions of the Uniform Commercial Code and the Federal Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978 of the United States.
 
Foreign Investments and Investment Incentives Law (2 units)
This course examines the Philippine investment and foreign incentive regime under the Constitution, Omnibus Investment Code of 1987, Foreign Investment Act of 1991, Philippine BOT Law, pertinent rules and regulations issued by the Board of Investments, relevant Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas rules on registration of foreign investments, and tax regulations covering foreigners doing business in the Philippines.
 
Foundational Course on Women’s Rights (2 units)
This course seeks to provide an introduction to the evolution of the concepts of gender equality and women’s rights in the international human rights system by utilizing the Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). It seeks to highlight the ways in which State and non-State actors invoke, adopt, or resist CEDAW and related instruments in legal, political, economic, and socio-cultural settings.
 
Gender and the Law (2 units)
This course provides students with a deeper understanding of gender equality and non-discrimination. Feminist legal theories and international instruments relating to women’s rights will be examined and analyzed. Focus will also be given to institutions that create, maintain, and perpetuate gender inequalities, in particular the legal framework and how it contributes to the institutionalization of gender differences in light of the challenges presented by legal pluralism. Special issues and concerns of women, such as violence against women, sexual harassment, reproductive rights, commodification of women, sexuality, women in armed conflict, climate change issues, and race and gender intersections, are highlighted to illustrate discrimination against women.
 
Global Legal Practice (2 units)
This course provides students with an overview of the legal profession, practice of law, and the role of lawyers in society. It involves a discussion of the kinds of law practice (such as in the private and public sectors, and the academe), and the reasons why people need legal assistance. Through readings and reports, students are equipped with knowledge of legal practice across different jurisdictions, as well as the effect of globalization to the practice of law and the legal profession in general.
 
Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts (2 units)
This course starts with a brief examination of the rules on the use of force, followed by a detailed consideration of the rules on the conduct of military operations and the use of weapons, and finally focuses on the rules designed to protect the victims of war and the sanctions for violators.  Particular attention is given to the law applicable to non-international armed conflicts. At all appropriate stages of the course, the overlap with human rights law is discussed.
 
Immigration, Registration, and Citizenship Laws (2 units)
This course extensively discusses Philippine immigration, registration, and citizenship laws. It also examines the impact of current rules and regulations on domestic and international policies on immigration. It provides a comparative and basic analysis of immigration laws of other countries such as United States, Australia, Canada, Japan, and Germany.
 
Indigenous Peoples and the Law (2 units)
This course introduces students to the development of international protection for indigenous peoples and to the constitutional and domestic framework of protection for indigenous Filipinos.  It examines more closely International Labour Organization conventions affecting tribal populations, the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, and relevant international law decisions. A multidisciplinary approach is applied to enlighten students on the impact of formal legal systems on the property rights and relations of indigenous peoples within their ancestral domains, including their traditional culture and practices.
 
Information Technology Law and High-Technology Transactions (2 units)
This course extensively covers the evolution of the Internet, domain names and intellectual property issues online, and cybercrimes in the Philippines in light of the Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012, and online data privacy in light of the Data Privacy Act of 2012. Laws and jurisprudence on electronic contracts, electronic mail, and spam are also discussed. This course ends with a discussion on high technology / venture capital transactions.
 
Institutions and Mechanisms for Human Rights Promotion and Protection (2 units)
This course examines the structure of human rights monitoring and compliance mechanisms at the international, regional, and national levels. It discusses the different bodies of the UN system, particularly the charter and treaty-based mechanisms, as well as other specialized institutions. An examination of regional human rights systems, including the initiatives in ASEAN, is also included. At the national level, the roles and contributions of national human rights institutions are discussed. Lastly, the role of non-government and civil society organizations is scrutinized on how they enhance human rights promotion and protection.
 
Intellectual Property Law, Licensing, and Competition Policy (2 units)
This course explores how intellectual property (IP) laws and policies complement and conflict with competition policies in light of the passage of the Philippine Competition Act (R.A. 10667). It examines how different governments and IP owners assess the interplay of these laws during the course of creating, exploiting and/or transferring intellectual property rights, and the manner in which the competition law/intellectual property law interface plays out in the international arena.  
 
Intellectual Property Practice (2 units)
This course teaches the fundamental knowledge and skills for preparing trademark and patent applications and prosecution. It is designed to equip students with the basics of drafting, filing, and prosecuting trademark and patent applications.
 
Interdisciplinary Course on Corruption, Impunity, and Governance (2 units)
This course seeks to understand why the existing Philippine legal and policy frameworks on corruption fail to effectively address the prevalence of corruption in the country, entailing an exposure to the psychology and sociology of corruption in Philippine society. Focus is given to the preventive aspect of combating corruption and the ill effects of corruption on the political, social, economic, and cultural life of the Filipino nation.
 
International Commercial Arbitration (2 units)
This course immerses students in the process of international commercial arbitration by understanding the concepts of dispute resolution and arbitration, the institutions relevant to arbitration, and the frameworks of laws applicable to arbitration. Students tackle the process of arbitration beginning with the creation of arbitration agreements until the enforcement of arbitral awards in domestic courts.
 
International Commercial Transactions (2 units)
This course focuses on the most frequent legal problems that arise from the sale of goods when the seller and the buyer are based in different countries. It includes discussions on the legal framework underlying international sale transactions and examines the risks inherent in international trade, as well as the means by which these can be contained.
 
International Competition Laws (2 units)
This is an overview of the basics of competition law from an international perspective through a comparison of main jurisdictions. All fundamental topics are included, such as the economics of competition law, merger regulation, abuse of dominant market position, horizontal and vertical agreements, public policies, competition rules in different industry sectors, enforcement, among others.
 
International Criminal Law (2 units)
This course discusses the general framework for holding individuals responsible for criminal acts under current international law as contained in the Rome Statute. Recent developments in the International Criminal Court practice are covered. Questions related to the responsibility of non-state actors within the context of armed conflicts are also addressed. Emphasis is given to a comparative study of the implementing laws of some member-States upon accession to the Rome Statute.
 
International Environmental and Climate Change Law (2 units)
This course highlights the role of international law in managing international environmental problems, which are increasingly becoming complex. It discusses the sources of general principles of international environmental law, roles and obligations of States, and issues of compliance and implementation. The course then delves into specific issues such as climate change, biodiversity and endangered species, protection of the seas and marine life, toxic and hazardous wastes, and human rights and the environment, among others.
 
International Environmental Law Practice (2 units)
This course covers laws and jurisprudence governing the emerging realization on international and national levels that basic environmental, economic, and human rights issues are inextricably linked. The course teaches students integrated approaches, following a multi-disciplinary perspective and using environmental justice lens. Course pedagogy simulates global negotiations and moot court exercises in the International Court of Justice, Appellate Body of the World Trade Organization, International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, and similar bodies.
 
International Financial Institutions (2 units)
This course provides an overview of the historical development of international financial institutions (IFIs) as instruments of the post-war international order, and to understand where the IFIs are located in the overall context of economic development. The course covers the functions of and issues addressed by IFIs in general, but gives particular focus on specific issues on the law and practice of the Asian Development Bank.
 
International Labor Law (2 units)
This course discusses international labor law as it developed through the years under the auspices of the International Labour Organization (ILO). It covers international labor standards responding to the needs and challenges faced by workers and employers in the global economy as contained in ILO Conventions and Recommendations, the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, and the Tripartite declaration of principles concerning multinational enterprises and social policy. The ILO enforcement mechanisms and the work of its major committees having oversight functions are also discussed.
 
International Moot Court (2 units)
This course deals with the concepts, principles, and theories of public international law, with emphasis on the sources of law, basic documents, and current developments and trends in international law. Particular attention is given to the analysis of the current problem of the Jessup International Law Moot Court Competition, including the development of skills in problem analysis, issue identification, case theory formulation, and memorial preparation. Emphasis is placed on the crafting and preparation of a moot compromis, bench memorial, and competition rules for a moot court competition. 
 
International Taxation (2 units)
This course features a study of taxation of resident aliens, non-resident aliens, and foreign corporations, and the tax treatment of foreign-sourced income of Filipino citizens and domestic corporations. Topics include source-of-income rules, foreign tax credits, tax treaties, branch profits remittance tax, comparison of tax treatment of branch and subsidiary of a foreign corporation, withholding tax rules, and estate and gift tax as it affects aliens.
 
International Trade Issues (2 units)
This course covers the subject of global governance, divided into modules that focus on emerging trends in international law-making and regulation, and their impact on the international economic activities and relations of States, particularly involving developing countries like the Philippines. A central concern that the seminar addresses are the effects of those changes in forms and trends in the international legal regime, as well as in substantive law, that are applicable on a global basis.
 
Introduction to ASEAN Economic Law (2 units)
This course reviews the ASEAN economic legal framework with particular focus on the ASEAN frameworks on investments and services. It also examines how regional economic integration affects domestic laws and places emphasis on the practice of law in the region, and surveys ASEAN member States’ compliance with the ASEAN economic framework.
 
Introduction to International Economic Law (2 units)
This seminar provides a general survey of the history and development of international economic law and the international economic institutions created during the Bretton Woods Conference. Substantial treatment is devoted to the World Trade Organization’s rules and the complementary role of the International Monetary Fund in cases of deep balance of payments deficit of member States. The course also examines legal and other related issues resulting from the demands of developing country members within these international economic institutions and the influence of these institutions on national policy-making.
 
Law and Economic Development (2 units)
This course allows students to study law and economics as an approach to the study of law.  Introductory discussions on the dominant schools of thought in this field familiarize students with the concept. The course looks into the role of law, including legal and judicial institutions, in economic development. Special attention is devoted to the experience of the Philippines, taking into account Supreme Court pronouncements involving economic policies, court inefficiencies, and efforts to reform the judiciary.
 
Law and Economics of Antitrust Regulations (2 units)
This course provides an introduction to the legal doctrines, public policies, and intellectual theories that inform the practice and administration of antitrust law. It tackles problems posed by monopolies, mergers, joint ventures, tying arrangements, exclusive dealing, collaboration in pricing, and other business behavior, as they have arisen in a wide variety of industries and markets.
 
Law and Political Philosophy: From Antiquity to Postmodernity (2 units)
This course focuses primarily on Michel Foucault’s account of the shift from the sovereign or juridical to the disciplinary mode of power. This produces an understanding of the operations of power cast in terms of the individual’s embeddedness with networks of dependencies specified by norms that measure individual performance according to the principles of equivalency (“solidarity”) and difference (“abnormality”).
 
Law on Franchising (2 units)
This course undertakes a study of the nature and implication of business format franchising, its essential requisites and components, as well as the impact of the various provisions of the Intellectual Property Code on the terms of the franchise agreement. It also analyzes the legal relationships between and among the various parties covered by the franchised business. It includes sessions on practical training to craft effective franchise agreements that look at the protection of the rights of the parties covered by such agreements.
 
Laws on Anti-discrimination and Equality (2 units)
This course seeks to provide students with an overview of international human rights law. It highlights the anti-discriminatory principle as an effective strategy or tool in human rights policy and lawmaking, and as an indispensable element in a modern legal system that celebrates diversity and pluralism, and guarantees and protects human rights. It traces the evolution and instrumentality of the anti-discrimination and equality principles and laws in realizing human rights and shaping human rights laws throughout history.
Laws on Refugees, the Internally Displaced, and Stateless Persons (2 units)
This course provides students with an overview of the history of the influx of Indochinese Refugees from the ’70s and ’80s, including the process of screening asylum-seekers during this period. It also examines the existing status determination procedure under Philippine law and discusses the current legal issues surrounding the implementation of other provisions of the Convention. The Statelessness Convention and the United Nations Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement are also tackled.
 
Legal Accounting (2 units)
This course introduces the accounting profession, basic accounting principles and concepts, accounting equation, financial statements, accounting cycle, and their practical applications to the practice of law. The course guides students in reading and deciphering the messages behind financial statements, and teaches them to present pertinent legal defenses in schedules using sound accounting form, easily understandable to accountants who may be called in a case as expert witnesses or commissioners.
 
Local Government Finance (2 units)
This course reviews provisions of the Local Government Code that focus on the fiscal autonomy of local government units (LGUs). It puts into light the procedural and substantive aspect of how local government financing and fiscal management works in theory and in practice. Specifically, this course explores the scope and exercise by LGUs of their taxing and other revenue-generating powers, the remedies for collection of revenues of LGUs, and remedies of taxpayers.  It also covers real property taxation and LGUs’ internal revenue allotment, including how these taxes are distributed and disposed of by the LGUs.
 
Management and Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights (2 units)
This course is divided into two parts: IP Management and IP Enforcement and Dispute Resolution. The first part introduces participants to the main principles and features of the key types of intellectual property rights in the context of the end product of the country's total intellectual capital and with an emphasis on how such can be economically valued, acquired, and commercialized. The second part provides students with knowledge of the general principles of enforcement of IP rights, focusing on Philippine laws, procedures, and jurisprudence, as well as an overview of mechanisms for resolving IP disputes.
 
Media Law and Ethics (2 units)
This course focuses on the legal and regulatory framework underpinning Philippine media, the role played by media in a working democracy, and ethical issues media practitioners are likely to encounter in the work environment. Constitutional precepts vis-à-vis freedom of speech and press and corollary principles on prior restraint and subsequent punishment in relation to the print, movies and electronic media, right to privacy, and analogous issues are analyzed.  Basic principles on the laws on libel and defamation are likewise discussed. The legal and ethical ramifications on the latest trends and advancements in information technology affecting the media practitioners are also analyzed.
 
Mediation (2 units)
This course introduces the concept of mediation in the world of dispute resolution processes. It provides an overview of mediation as a mode of conflict resolution and discusses key concepts and models of mediation. The course also covers a discussion of the skills of an effective mediator and how mediation can be used in different settings. It also includes skills training on mediation on specific cases, such as child custody, property distribution, etc.
 
Mergers and Acquisitions (2 units)
This course provides students with an understanding of the provisions in the Corporate Code on the requirements and procedures that must be complied with for mergers and acquisitions, and the various types of sales involving company enterprises and their implications in terms of the extent of liabilities.
 
Modes of Discovery (2 units)
This course discusses the Modes of Discovery involving various rules issued by the Supreme Court. It tackles the different modes of discovery under Rules 23-29 of the 1997 Rules of Civil Procedure, Modes of Discovery under Criminal Procedure, those involving environmental cases, and relevant jurisprudence. A comparison is made between the modes of discovery and other issuances of the Supreme Court, such as the Judicial Affidavit Rule and Rules on the Writs of Amparo and Habeas Data.
 
Negotiation Seminar (2 units)
This course provides students with an experience-based introduction to the theory and practice of negotiation. It considers topics, such as the nature of conflict and dispute, integrative and distributive bargaining, barriers agreement and ways to overcome such barriers, client relationships, negotiation skills, such as listening, communication and persuasion, negotiation power, and the role of culture, language and gender in negotiation. The course largely utilizes simulation and role-playing exercises, as well as critiques and reflections on students’ experiences.
 
Patent Law, Industrial Designs, and Plant Variety Production (2 units)
This is an intensive study of patent law, industrial design, and plant variety protection. It covers procedural and substantive topics of patent law, international agreements, fundamental principles and policies, types of patent, extent of patent rights and limitations, jurisprudence, as well as emerging trends and issues on patent. It explains the nature of patents in comparison with other forms of intellectual property, subject matter eligible for patent protection, conditions for patentability, rights conferred, and limitations and enforcement of patent rights.
 
Peace Process and Peace Agreements (2 units)
This course introduces students to the peace process experience of the Philippines, and involves a study of the legal issues surrounding the peace agreements that lie at the heart of the processes.  The course emphasizes the evaluation of the peace process and its collateral agreements and materials from the standpoint of Philippine Constitutional Law and International Law, and shows how the peace process is a key illustration of the interface between the two areas.
 
Practice on Injunctive Writs and TROs (2 units)
This is a seminar class that looks at the following writs of restraint: the Writ of Preliminary Injunction and Restraining Orders (Rule 58 of the Rules of Court), Status Quo Ante Orders and related writs of restraint found in other rules and laws such as the Temporary and Permanent Environmental Protection Orders under the Rules of Procedure on Environmental Cases, and the Protection Orders under the Anti-Violence Against Women and their Children Act. It focuses on practical training on drafting applications for these writs.
 
Provisional Remedies (2 units)
This course provides an intensive study of provisional reliefs under Rules 57-61 of the Rules of Court, including a survey of pertinent decisions of the Supreme Court. It also covers the special rules on the writs of amparo and habeas data.
 
Public-Private Partnership (2 units)
Using the international law comparative approach, this course enables students to understand the various regimes covering government infrastructure and development contracts under the aegis of Public-Private Partnership (PPP). It delves into key areas such as PPP modalities, risk identification, allocation, funding, regulation, and contractual provisions. It also discusses relevant Philippine laws, jurisprudence, regulations, sample contracts, and education-resource materials on PPP.
 
Real Estate Transactions (2 units)
This subject deals with the legal and operational aspects of subdivisions and condominiums, and transfers of real estate. It provides an in-depth analysis of real estate development process and some practical exposure to this field of practice. Also examined are the effects of zoning and environmental laws and regulations on the development process.
 
Robots, Artificial Intelligence, and the Law (2 units)
This course introduces students to legal problems and emerging issues in the field of robots and artificial intelligence (AI). With robots and AI becoming more and more present and prevalent in our daily lives, we must come to terms with how our laws will deal with them.  This course examines how our legal framework will change (if it will or should at all) with the introduction of robots and AI.
 
Securities, Public Offerings, and Stock Exchange Listings (2 units)
This course focuses on the regulation of securities, particularly the requirements, and procedures for registering securities and listing of shares of stock for public offerings in the stock market.
 
Securities Regulation (2 units)
This subject covers fundamental concepts of securities regulation contained in the Securities Regulation Code (SRC) and related laws. It deals principally with the anti-fraud provisions of the SRC, regulation of publicly listed companies, and regulation of the securities business. Students are introduced to topics like market manipulation, insider trading, and other basic concepts in securities regulation. Enforcement mechanisms such as consent decree, nolo contendere, private right of action, and treble damage suits are also covered. Relevant rules of the Philippine Stock Exchange are also taken up.
 
Seminar on Comparative Legal Studies (2 units)
This course provides students with an overview of the different legal systems operating in various countries and multinational territories. Focus will be on the legal systems of the United States, European Union, and the ASEAN region.
 
Seminar on Emerging Issues in Sports Law (2 units)
This course introduces students to legal problems in the field of sports. The course will focus on American and European law and see how these can be adopted within the Philippine legal framework. It covers three areas: 1) sports organizations and dispute resolution, 2) athlete rights and protection, and 3) commercial issues.
 
Seminar on Human Rights Writs (2 units)
This course is a specialized study of the Supreme Court rules on the writs of amparo, habeas data, and habeas corpus. Apart from examining the rules, the course includes a survey of jurisprudence involving cases, where these writs were issued by courts. Students are also trained to draft pleadings that seek the issuance of these writs.
 
Seminar on Legislative Drafting and Advocacy (2 units)
This subject enables students to understand and critically analyze legislative theory and technique, statutory interpretation, and relevant policy issues. It equips students with the practical ability to translate policy into law, consider and negotiate with various stakeholders to legislation, and to draft as well as defend proposed legislation. 
 
Special Civil Actions (2 units)
This is a study of the provisions of the Rules of Court on special civil actions, such as actions for declaratory relief, certiorari, prohibition, mandamus, quo warranto, contempt, interpleader, expropriation, foreclosure of real estate mortgage, partition, and forcible entry or unlawful detainer, with reference to relevant provisions of the Civil Code. A survey of jurisprudence related to these rules is also included.
 
Special Problems in Business Law Practice (2 units)
This course addresses topical legal issues arising from the conduct of business. It also emphasizes the dynamics between law and business in order to guide lawyers in making informed strategies in handling business-related cases.
 
Street Law (2 units)
This course provides law students a unique opportunity to enrich their own legal education while contributing to the education of sectoral groups. The broad goals of the clinical program are to develop in law students an appreciation for the multi-faceted role and responsibilities of the lawyer in the community, and to sensitize students to sources and resolutions of community legal problems. The course works to achieve these goals through a program of seminartraining, and supervision.
 
Tax on Mergers and Acquisitions (2 units)
This is a follow up to the Merger and Acquisition course and covers the rules on taxation of sales or exchanges of property, corporate reorganizations, and non-recognition transactions, practical applications of related substantive rules, discussions of the related administrative requirements, and other related topics, such as, step transaction doctrine, carry-over of tax attributes, and use of zonal value.
 
Telecommunications Practice (2 units)
This course covers laws and jurisprudence governing the telecommunications and broadcast industry, including constitutional provisions affecting telecommunications and broadcast industries. General principles of public utility regulations under Commonwealth Act No. 146, the liberalization of the telecommunication industry, and the National Telecommunications Commission’s history, powers, and licensing regime are also discussed.
 
The Judicial Mind (2 units)
This course focuses on understanding and analyzing the judicial mind. In order to do this, this course examines not only what judges do, but also all aspects of the judicial process, such as the selection of judges, court structures, and the social and political settings in which Philippine courts operate. A study of foreign judicial systems complements the analysis of the Philippine judicial system.
 
The Lawyer as Leader and Policy Maker (2 units)
This course develops the leadership potential of students by providing a learning environment for their holistic formation, equipping them with the perspectives, tools, and skills to be effective and ethical lawyers, leaders, and policymakers, and imbuing them with the principles of cura personalis and Ignatian spirituality. It focuses on the themes of social justice and inequality. Students are challenged to examine various forms of inequality in Philippine society, and to explore possible ways of transforming the social order through law and policy.
 
Trademark Law, Unfair Competition, and Trade Secrets (2 units)
This subject is divided into three parts -- trademarks, unfair competition, and trade secrets. Under the topic of trademarks, the course discusses the purpose and functions of trademarks, as compared to other intellectual property rights, the different types of trademarks, acquisition of ownership and rights, determining confusing similarity and infringement, rights, remedies, and defenses. In unfair competition, students are introduced to other misappropriations of market intangibles and the remedies available under the law. The last topic introduces students to the principles intended to protect valuable business information from misappropriation by others.
 
Treaties and other International Agreements (2 units)
This course explores issues pertaining to the law of treaties as a branch of public international law, using the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT) as a framework. It delves into more specific topics on treaties and international agreements, such as treaty-making powers of international organizations, resolving conflicts between treaties, special character of human rights treaties, application of the VCLT rules on interpretation, and the relationship between State obligations under international law and domestic laws.
 
UN and other International Organizations (2 units)
This course discusses the legal and administrative structure of the United Nations and its specialized agencies. Emphasis is given to the strategic roles and functions assumed by selected international agencies in current developments.
 
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (2 units)
This course is dedicated to understanding the law of the seas, which regulates the activities of States and their interactions pertaining maritime matters. It highlights the history of the 1982 UNCLOS. It pays close attention to the different regimes or jurisdictional zones of the ocean, the navigation of ships, the exploitation of living and non-living resources, and maritime boundary delimitation. It also covers dispute settlement mechanisms under the UNCLOS. Finally, in application, the search for a durable solution to conflicting territorial claims over various parts of the seas is also explored and analyzed.
 
*The Law School reserves the right not to offer any of the foregoing elective subjects, especially if enrollment in that particular subject is less than twelve (12) students.  The Law School also reserves the right to change the course offerings, sequence of course offerings, course content and description, and course load as it may deem appropriate.